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AP/POLS 4010 3.0 M (W)

History of Political Thought:

Socialist Thought from the French Revolution

to the Fall of the Berlin Wall


Winter 2012

Course Director: Marcello Musto

Lecture Time: Tue 11:30 – 14.30

Class Location: Ross Building, N 812

Office Location: Ross Building, N 813
Office Hour: Tue 15:30-16:30 / Thu 19:00-20:00

Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Phone: 416 – 736 2100, Ext. 20241

Course Syllabus


The course will centre on the principal European conceptions of Socialism between 1789 and 1989. Its first part will be dedicated to some of the most important Socialist thinkers of the Nineteenth Century (Saint-Simon, Fourier, Owen, Proudhon, Lassalle, Marx, Bakunin, and the Fabians), while the second part will focus on the analysis of the main Marxist controversies and Socialist political experiences of the Twentieth Century (especially the Bernstein Debate of the Second International, and the so-called “actually existing socialism” in Soviet Union expressed in the works of Lenin and Stalin).

Goal of the course is to examine the characteristics and distinguishing features of the varied Socialisms articulated by the authors above. The selection of readings will focus on the writings in which these thinkers developed their theories of how a Socialist society should be economically and politically organized.

Special attention will be dedicated to Marx’s Socialism and to his critique of other Socialisms, including Anarchism. Though he never composed a single text specifically on Socialism and post-capitalist society, through his critique of capitalism Marx pointed to some of the key social features and relations of production in the “society of free producers” which would replace the capitalist social formation. The course will explore the originality of Marx’s theories in comparison with those of his socialist predecessors, as well as the differences between his ideas and the historical record of “actually existing Socialism”.

The last class will review the course and examine the most relevant contemporary Socialist theoretical and political interventions (such as those offered by Latin American socialist governments, the European Communist parties, the Socialist International, the so-called 'Socialism of the XXI Century', and the Alter-globalization movement).

Course Requirements

Class Participation:

This course is taught in weekly seminars lasting 2 hours and 50 minutes. Attendance and informed participation at all class meetings is not only strongly recommended, but required. Students are expected to attend class regularly, complete the assignment readings on time and participate actively in class discussion. Participation will be marked for attendance and quality of participation.

Presentation:

Each class will begin with student presentation (not exceeding 30 minutes) on the assigned readings. Moreover, there will be one discussant, who will start the discussion by responding to the presentation(s). Presenter should give a 1/2 pages summary of their presentation to her/his discussant a day in advance of the class, and should also provide photocopies of the summary for other students.

A good presentation is very important to stimulate the discussion. Therefore, please avoid just reading a paper aloud, and try to draw the attention of the class to issues on which the presenter would like class discussion and comment. Presentations should:

- give all the pertinent biographical information about the author(s) in question and the historical context in which the assigned texts were written;

- reconstruct the argument of the author(s) examined, and provide an overview of the assigned readings;

- identify the key questions for discussion, and the controversies implied by the material;

- critically analyze the texts (for example: what are the limitations of the position expressed in the readings?);

- Identify anything you found unclear or hard to understand;

- conclude with three discussion questions for the group to consider.

Final Paper Proposal:

Students are free to propose their own final paper topic, but it has to be related to the authors and/or the writings read during the course (papers on the Socialist "models" of the authors included in the program, or on the comparison among different Socialist conceptions, are the most welcome).

Final paper proposal should be 3-4 pages and should include the following information:

- Indication of the title;

- An annotated bibliography of at least 3 sources consulted, not from the course outline. Each entry must include: a) the full and complete bibliographic citation; and b) a brief assessment of why you think the source will be useful for your paper;

- Preliminary outline of your paper. This text should be a prose summary (i.e., not bullet-point) of your preliminary argument, that provides an outline of the paper you expect to write. It should also include a list of the probable sections into which your paper will be divided.

Final papers proposal will be due 28 February, in hard copy and by email. Late assignment will be penalized.

Final Paper:

The topic of the paper must be the one approved through the Final Paper Proposal. The Final Paper should:

- be approximately 5000 words, including footnotes and bibliography (roughly 20 pages double spaced 12 pt. 'Times New Toman' font);

- be clearly structured (divided in at least 3/4 sections), and written with rigorous evidence;

- be argued with documentation from a critical sources (1-2 books and/or articles per page is a good rule of thumb). These sources may include some of the assigned readings, but must also evidence original research.

- have references from hard copy books with the indication of page numbers. Papers with references from internet - unless they are truly necessary - will be penalized.

Final papers will be due 5 April, in hard copy and by email. Late assignment will be penalized.

Warning: the paper must be entirely your own work. No plagiarism.

Access to Readings:

The reading list has been organised as follows. Each topic specifies a number of Required Readings. These are the minimum which you must read every week in order to be able to participate fully in the seminar discussions. You can go deeper into the topic using the Additional Readings, especially when you prepare your presentation and write your essays.

Many of the required readings are available on-line (more information on the course could be also found at www.marcellomusto.com); while the following articles and books are available on-line (for example the articles from The Nation) or on reserve at Scott library:

Paresh Chattopadhyay, 'The Economic Content of Socialism: Marx vs. Lenin', Review of Radical Political Economics, Vol.24, n. 3-4 (1992).

Paresh Chattopadhyay, The Marxian Concept of Capital and the Soviet Experience, Westport, CT: Praeger 1994.

Paresh Chattopadhyay, 'The Failure of Twentieth-Century Socialism and Marx’s Continuing Relevance', Socialism and Democracy, vol. 24, n. 3 (2010): 23-45.

George D.H. Cole, Socialist Thought, Volume I: The Forerunners 1789-1850, London: MacMillan 1962.

George D.H. Cole, Socialist Thought, Volume II: Marxism and Anarchism 1850-1890, London: MacMillan 1961.

Hal Draper, Karl Marx’s Theory of Revolution. Vol. IV: Critique of Other Socialisms, New York: Monthly Review 1990.

Eric J. Hobsbawm, The Age of Revolution 1789-1848, Chicago: Mentor 1962.

Eric Hobsbawm, ed., The History of Marxism, Volume 1: Marxism in Marx's day, Brighton: Harvester 1982.

Harry W. Laidler, History of Socialism, New York: Thomas Y. Crowell 1968.

Carl Landauer, European Socialism, Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press 1959.

Marcello Musto, 'The Rediscovery of Karl Marx', International Review of Social History, Vol. 52, part 3 (2007).

David McNally, Against the Market: Political Economy, Market Socialism and the Marxist Critique, London: Verso 1993.

Clara Zetkin, 'What the Women Owe to Karl Marx', in Frank Mecklenburg - Manfred Stassen, German Essays on Socialism in the Nineteenth Century, New York: Continuum 1990, pp. 237-241.

Course Evaluation

Class Participation

35%

Presentation

15%

Final paper proposal

10%

Final paper

40%

Mid-term class participation marks will be available by appointment the week of 27 February; please contact me by email the week prior if you would like such an appointment.

Schedule of Classes and Readings

Jan 3 Introduction and Overview

Jan 10 The Early Socialists I: Saint Simon and Fourier

Required Readings:

Carl Landauer, European Socialism, pp. 21-46 (Chap. I: 'The Three Anticapitalistic Movement', sections 1, 2, 3 and 4).

George D.H. Cole, Socialist Thought, Volume I: The Forerunners 1789-1850, pp. 37-50 and 62-74 (Chap. IV: 'Saint-Simon', and Chap. VI: 'Fourier and Fourierism').

Charles Fourier, 'The Phalanstery' (Fragment I) http://marxists.org/reference/archive/fourier/works/ch20.htm

Charles Fourier, 'The Phalanstery' (Fragment II).
http://marxists.org/reference/archive/fourier/works/ch27.htm

Charles Fourier, 'Attractive Labour'

http://marxists.org/reference/archive/fourier/works/ch26.htm

Additional Readings:

Friedrich Engels, Socialism: Utopian and Scientific (Chap. I: 'The Development of Utopian Socialism').

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1880/soc-utop/index.htm

Eric J. Hobsbawm, The Age of Revolution 1789-1848, pp. 22-43 and 363-374 (Chap. 1 and Maps).

Jan 17 The Early Socialists II: Owen

Required Readings:

Carl Landauer, European Socialism, pp. 46-59 (Chap. I: 'The Three Anticapitalistic Movement', section 5).

George D.H. Cole, Socialist Thought, Volume I: The Forerunners 1789-1850, pp. 86-101 (Chap. IX: 'Owen and Owenism - Earlier Phases').

Robert Owen, A New View of Society (Essay Two: 'The Principles of the Former Essay continued, and applied in part to Practice', and Essay Four: 'The end of government is to make the governed and the governors happy').
http://marxists.org/reference/subject/economics/owen/index.htm#new-view

Additional Readings:

George D.H. Cole, Socialist Thought, Volume I: The Forerunners 1789-1850, pp. 120-131 (Chap. XI: 'Owen and the Trade Unions - The end of Owenism').

Eric J. Hobsbawm, The Age of Revolution 1789-1848, pp. 44-73 (Chap. 2).

Jan 24 Proudhon, or Socialism as Workers’ Self-Management

Required Readings:

Carl Landauer, European Socialism, pp. 59-68 (Chap. I: 'The Three Anticapitalistic Movement', section 6).

George D.H. Cole, Socialist Thought, Volume I: The Forerunners 1789-1850, pp. 201-218 (Chap. XIX: 'Proudhon').

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, General Idea of the Revolution in the Nineteenth Century (Chap. III: 'The Principle of Association', and Chap. VI: section 3: 'Division of Labour, Collective Forces, Machines, Workingmen’s Associations').
http://fair-use.org/p-j-proudhon/general-idea-of-the-revolution/

Karl Marx, On Proudhon

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1865/letters/65_01_24.htm

Friedrich Engels – Karl Marx, Manifesto of the Communist Party (Chap. III: 'Socialist and Communist Literature').

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist-manifesto/index.htm

Additional Readings:

David McNally, Against the Market: Political Economy, Market Socialism and the Marxist Critique, pp. 139-169 (Chap. 5: 'Proudhon Did Enormous Mischief': Marx's Critique of the First Market Socialists').

Jan 31 Lassalle and the State Socialism

Required Readings:

George D.H. Cole, Socialist Thought, Volume II: Marxism and Anarchism 1850-1890, pp. 71-87 (Chap. V: 'Lassalle').

Ferdinand Lassalle, The Working Man’s Programme
http://books.google.com/books?id=jAnvxDwjIYgC&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&dq=%E2%80%A2%09Ferdinand+Lassalle,+The+Working+Man%E2%80%99s+Programme+edward+peters&source=bl&ots=ZWTEvlgAeO&sig=yI4lwocg9JhlwhW8CtoLpR2rBl4&hl=it&ei=BZMyS7OGO42xlAevv4ygBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CBQQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=%E2%80%A2%09Ferdinand%20Lassalle%2C%20The%20Working%20Man%E2%80%99s%20Programme%20edward%20peters&f=false

Hal Draper, Karl Marx’s Theory of Revolution. Vol. IV: Critique of Other Socialisms, pp. 41-71 (Chap. 3: 'Of State-Socialism: Lassallean Model').

Additional Readings:

Hal Draper, Karl Marx’s Theory of Revolution. Vol. IV: Critique of Other Socialisms, pp. 241-269 ('Special Note A. Lassalle and Marx: History of a Myth').

Eduard Bernstein, Ferdinand Lassalle as a Social Reformer (Chap. VII: 'The Open Reply Letter; its economic portion - The Iron Law of Wages, and productive co-operative societies with State-Help').

http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/bernstein/works/1893/lassalle/chap07.htm

Feb 7 Marx's Socialism, or t he Associated Mode of Production

Required Readings:

Marcello Musto, 'The Rediscovery of Karl Marx', International Review of Social History, Vol. 52, part 3 (2007): 477-498.

Eric Hobsbawm, 'Marx, Engels and Pre-Marxian socialism', in idem, ed., The History of Marxism, Volume 1: Marxism in Marx's day.

Friedrich Engels – Karl Marx, Manifesto of the Communist Party (Chap. I: 'Bourgeois and Proletarians', and Chap. II: 'Proletarians and Communists').

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist-manifesto/index.htm 

Karl Marx, Capital (Chap. I, section 4: 'The Fetishism of the Commodity and Its Secret').

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1867-c1/ch01.htm#S4

Karl Marx, Critique of the Gotha Programme.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1875/gotha/index.htm

Additional Readings:

Karl Marx, Grundrisse ('The Fragments on Machines', pp. 690-712).

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1857/grundrisse/index.htm

Also available here:

thenewobjectivity.com/pdf/marx.pdf

Ernest Mandel, 'Marx, Karl Heinrich', in John Eatwell - Murray Milgate - Peter Newman (eds), The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, Volume 3 , pp. 367-383.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/mandel/19xx/marx/

Clara Zetkin, 'What the Women Owe to Karl Marx', in Frank Mecklenburg - Manfred Stassen, German Essays on Socialism in the Nineteenth Century, pp. 237-241.

Feb 14 Anarchism Versus Socialism

Required Readings:

Peter Kropotkin, 'Anarchism' (from The Encyclopaedia Britannica).

http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/kropotkin-peter/1910/britannica.htm

George D.H. Cole, Socialist Thought, Volume II: Marxism and Anarchism 1850-1890, pp. 213-236 (Chap. IX: 'Bakunin').

Mikhail Bakunin, 'Revolutionary Catechism'.

http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/bakunin/works/1866/catechism.htm

Karl Marx, Conspectus of Bakunin’s 'Statism and Anarchy'.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1874/04/bakunin-notes.htm

Friedrick Engels, On Authority.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1872/10/authority.htm

Karl Marx, Political Indifferentism.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1873/01/indifferentism.htm

Additional Readings:

 Maximilien Rubel, Theoretician of Anarchism.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/rubel/1973/marx-anarchism.htm

George D.H. Cole, Socialist Thought, Volume II: Marxism and Anarchism 1850-1890, pp. 315-360 (Chap. XII: 'Anarchists and Anarchist-Communists - Kropotkin').

Feb 28 Fabianism, or the Reformist Socialism

Required Readings:

Harry W. Laidler, History of Socialism, pp. 184-222.

Sidney Webb, Historic , in George Bernard Shaw(ed.), Fabian Essays in Socialism, pp. 3-43.

http://oll.libertyfund.org/?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=298

Additional Readings:

Graham Wallas, Property under Socialism , in George Bernard Shaw(ed.), Fabian Essays in Socialism, pp. 163-185.

http://oll.libertyfund.org/?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=298

Mar 6 Evolutionary Socialism or Revolutionary Socialism? The Bernstein Debate

Required Readings:

Eduard Bernstein, The Preconditions of Socialism (Chap. III: 'The Tasks and Possibilities of Social Democracy').

http://marxists.org/reference/archive/bernstein/works/1899/evsoc/index.htm

Rosa Luxemburg, Reform or Revolution.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/luxemburg/1900/reform-revolution/index.htm

Additional Readings:

George D.H. Cole, Socialist Thought, Volume II: Marxism and Anarchism 1850-1890, pp. 425-444 (Chap. XII: 'Socialism in the Early 1890s. Conclusion').

Mar 13 Lenin and the Bolshevik Socialism

Required Readings:

Vladimir Lenin, The State and Revolution (Chapters I, II, III, V).

http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1917/staterev/

Paresh Chattopadhyay, 'The Economic Content of Socialism: Marx vs. Lenin', Review of Radical Political Economics, Vol.24, n. 3-4 (1992): 90-110.

Additional Readings:

Paresh Chattopadhyay, 'The Failure of Twentieth-Century Socialism and Marx’s Continuing Relevance', Socialism and Democracy, vol. 24, n. 3 (2010): 23-45.

Vladimir Lenin, 'Last Testament: Letter to the Congress'.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1922/dec/testamnt/congress.htm

Mar 20 Stalin and the Socialism in One Country

Required Readings:

Joseph Stalin, Concerning Questions of Leninism (Chapters 4, 5, 6).

http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1926/01/25.htm

Joseph Stalin, Economic Problems of the Socialism in the USSR (Chapters 1, 2, 3, 7).

http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1951/economic-problems/index.htm

Paresh Chattopadhyay, The Marxian Concept of Capital and the Soviet Experience, pp. 101-119 (Chap. 6: 'The Soviet Economy as a Non-Capitalist Economy: Theoretical Considerations').

Additional Readings:

Joseph Stalin, Once More on the Social-Democratic Deviation in our Party [1926] (Report Delivered on December 7, Sections III: 'The Disagreements in the C.P.S.U.(B.)', and Reply to the Discussion, December 13, Section III: 'The Question of Building Socialism in the U.S.S.R.').

http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1926/11/22.htm

Boris Souvarine, Stalin: A Critical Survey of Bolshevism (Chap. X: 'Stalin').

http://www.marxists.org/history/etol/writers/souvar/works/stalin/ch10.htm

Mar 27 The Contemporary Prospects of Socialism

An article (by choice) among those written for the Forum on Socialism in The Nation.

http://www.thenation.com/article/socialists-need-be-where-struggle

A list of other texts for the last class will be distributed during the course.