Teaching

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York University

Department of Sociology

Liberal Arts & Professional Studies

SOCI 3040. 3.0 (F)

Advanced Sociological Theory:

Alternatives to Capitalism

Fall 2014

Course Director: Dr. Marcello Musto

Class Time: Thursday 19:00 - 22:00

Class Location: Ross Building S103

Office Location: 134 Founders College

Office Hours: Thursday 17:30 - 18:30

Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Phone: 416 – 736 2100, Ext. 22558

Course Syllabus


The course will center on some of the principal conceptions of Socialism between 1789 and 1989. Its first part will be dedicated to some of the most important Socialist thinkers of the Nineteenth Century (Saint-Simon, Fourier, Owen, Proudhon, Lassalle, Marx, Bakunin and Kropotkin), while the second part will focus on the analysis of some of the main Socialist controversies and political experiences of the Twentieth Century, such as Leninism, the so-called “actually existing socialism” in Soviet Union, Cuba, the main Socialist experiences in Africa, and the so-called 'Socialism of the XXI Century' in Latin America.

Goal of the course is to examine the characteristics and distinguishing features of the varied Socialisms articulated by some of the main Socialists of the Nineteenth and the Twentieth century. The selection of readings will focus on the writings in which these thinkers developed their theories of how a Socialist society should be economically and politically organized.

Special attention will be dedicated to Marx’s Socialism and to his critique of other Socialisms, including Anarchism. Though he never composed a single text specifically on Socialism and post-capitalist society, through his critique of capitalism Marx pointed to some of the key social features and relations of production in the “society of free producers” which would replace the capitalist social formation. The course will explore the originality of Marx’s theories in comparison with those of his socialist predecessors, as well as the differences between his ideas and the historical record of “actually existing Socialism”.

Course Requirements

Class Participation:

This course is taught in weekly lectures lasting 2 hours and 50 minutes. Attendance and informed participation at all class meetings is not only strongly recommended, but required. Students are expected to attend class regularly, complete the assignment readings on time and participate actively in class discussion. Participation will be marked for attendance and quality of participation.

In the lectures I will try to:

- give all the pertinent biographical information about the author(s) and the historical context in which the assigned texts were written;

- reconstruct the argument of the author(s), and provide an overview of the assigned readings;

- identify the key questions for discussion, and the controversies implied by the material;

- critically analyze the texts (for example: what are the limitations of the position expressed in the readings?);

- Identify anything you found unclear or hard to understand;

- conclude with three discussion questions for the group to consider.

Please note that food and the use of cell phone in classroom will not be allowed.

Midterm Exams:

A midterm exams will be held on October 23, at the regular class time and place. The exam will last 120 minutes and it will consist of answering to 3 questions (out of 4) drawn from the readings assigned until that date (i.e., from week 1 to week 6).

Midterm marks will be available (if necessary) by email before November 7, 2014, and/or at the class of November 13, when I return the exams with critical feedback/suggestions that you might want to consider before starting to write the final paper.

Final Paper:

Students are free to propose their own final paper topic in this course, but it has to be related to the authors and/or the writings contained within the course syllabus. The Final Paper should:

- be approximately 3000 words, including footnotes but not bibliography;

- be clearly structured (divided into at least 3/4 sections), and written with rigorous evidence (particularly references to published works);

- be argued with documentation from critical sources (1-2 books and/or articles per page is a good rule of thumb). These sources may include some of the assigned readings, but must also evidence discovered though original research.

Final papers will be due 11 December by email. Late assignment will be penalized.

Warning: the paper must be entirely your own work. Be sure to meet all requirements of academic integrity (ie, no plagiarism).

Access to Readings:

The titles Peter Kropotkin, The Conquest of the bread (Cambridge University Press) and

Marcello Musto (ed.), Workers Unite! The International 150 Years After (Bloomsbury, 2014) have been ordered at York Bookstore.

Many of the required readings are available on-line; while the following volumes are on reserve at Scott library:

Paresh Chattopadhyay, The Marxian Concept of Capital and the Soviet Experience, Westport, CT: Praeger 1994

George D.H. Cole, Socialist Thought, Volume I: The Forerunners 1789-1850, London: MacMillan 1962

George D.H. Cole, Socialist Thought, Volume II: Marxism and Anarchism 1850-1890, London: MacMillan 1961

Eric J. Hobsbawm, The Age of Revolution 1789-1848, Chicago: Mentor 1962

Eric Hobsbawm, ed., The History of Marxism, Volume 1: Marxism in Marx's day, Brighton: Harvester 1982

Harry W. Laidler, History of Socialism, New York: Thomas Y. Crowell 1968

Carl Landauer, European Socialism, Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press 1959

Course Evaluation

Class Participation

20%

Midterm Exam

30%

Final paper

50%

Schedule of Classes and Readings

Week 1 - Sep 11 Introduction and The Early Socialists I: Saint Simon

Required Readings:

- Carl Landauer, European Socialism, pp. 21-35 (Chap. I: 'The Three Anticapitalistic Movement', sections 1, 2 and 3).

- George D.H. Cole, Socialist Thought, Volume I: The Forerunners 1789-1850, pp. 37-50 (Chap. IV: 'Saint-Simon').

- Claude de Saint-Simon, excerpts from The Organizer [1819], Industrial System [1821] and On Social Organization [1825] (to be distributed during the course).

Excerpts taken from the following volumes:

Saint-Simon, Henri. Henri Saint-Simon (1760-1825): Selected writings on science, industry, and social organization. Croom Helm. 1975.

Comte de Saint-Simon (ed. Markham), Henri Comte de Saint-Simon 1760-1825 Selected Writings. Blackwell Oxford, 1952.

Additional Readings:

- Eric J. Hobsbawm, The Age of Revolution 1789-1848, pp. 22-43 and 363-374 (Chap. 1 and Maps)

- Friedrich Engels, Socialism: Utopian and Scientific (Chap. I: 'The Development of Utopian Socialism')

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1880/soc-utop/index.htm

- Ghita Ionescu, Introduction, in Id. (ed.), The Political Thought of Saint-Simon, Cambridge University Press 1976.

Week 2 - Sep 18 The Early Socialists II: Fourier and Owen

Required Readings:

- Carl Landauer, European Socialism, pp. 35-59 (Chap. I: 'The Three Anticapitalistic Movement', section 5)

- George D.H. Cole, Socialist Thought, Volume I: The Forerunners 1789-1850, pp. 62-74 and 86-101 (Chap. VI: 'Fourier and Fourierism' and Chap. IX: 'Owen and Owenism - Earlier Phases')

Additional Readings:

Eric J. Hobsbawm, The Age of Revolution 1789-1848, pp. 44-73 (Chap. 2)

Charles Fourier, 'The Phalanstery' (Fragment I) http://marxists.org/reference/archive/fourier/works/ch20.htm

Charles Fourier, 'The Phalanstery' (Fragment II)
http://marxists.org/reference/archive/fourier/works/ch27.htm

Charles Fourier, 'Attractive Labour'

http://marxists.org/reference/archive/fourier/works/ch26.htm

Robert Owen, A New View of Society (Essay Two: 'The Principles of the Former Essay continued, and applied in part to Practice', and Essay Four: 'The end of government is to make the governed and the governors happy')
http://marxists.org/reference/subject/economics/owen/index.htm#new-view

George D.H. Cole, Socialist Thought, Volume I: The Forerunners 1789-1850, pp. 120-131 (Chap. XI: 'Owen and the Trade Unions - The end of Owenism')

Week 3 - Sep 25 Proudhon’s Mutualism, or Socialism as Workers’ Self-Management (with an appendix on Lassalle and State Socialism)

Required Readings:

- Carl Landauer, European Socialism, pp. 59-68 (Chap. I: 'The Three Anticapitalistic Movement', section 6)

- George D.H. Cole, Socialist Thought, Volume I: The Forerunners 1789-1850, pp. 201-218 (Chap. XIX: 'Proudhon')

Additional Readings:

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, General Idea of the Revolution in the Nineteenth Century (Chap. III: 'The Principle of Association', and Chap. VI: section 3: 'Division of Labour, Collective Forces, Machines, Workingmen’s Associations')
http://fair-use.org/p-j-proudhon/general-idea-of-the-revolution/

Karl Marx, On Proudhon

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1865/letters/65_01_24.htm

Friedrich Engels – Karl Marx, Manifesto of the Communist Party (Chap. III: 'Socialist and Communist Literature')

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist-manifesto/index.htm

Additional Readings on Ferdinand Lassalle:

George D.H. Cole, Socialist Thought, Volume II: Marxism and Anarchism 1850-1890, pp. 71-87 (Chap. V: 'Lassalle')

Ferdinand Lassalle, The Working Man’s Programme
http://books.google.com/books?id=jAnvxDwjIYgC&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&dq=%E2%80%A2%09Ferdinand+Lassalle,+The+Working+Man%E2%80%99s+Programme+edward+peters&source=bl&ots=ZWTEvlgAeO&sig=yI4lwocg9JhlwhW8CtoLpR2rBl4&hl=it&ei=BZMyS7OGO42xlAevv4ygBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CBQQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=%E2%80%A2%09Ferdinand%20Lassalle%2C%20The%20Working%20Man%E2%80%99s%20Programme%20edward%20peters&f=false

Week 4 - Oct 2 Marx's Socialism, or t he Associated Mode of Production

Required Readings:

Friedrich Engels – Karl Marx, Manifesto of the Communist Party (Chap. I: 'Bourgeois and Proletarians')

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist-manifesto/index.htm

Karl Marx, Capital (Chap. I, section 4: 'The Fetishism of the Commodity and Its Secret')

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1867-c1/ch01.htm#S4

Marcello Musto (ed.), Workers Unite! The International 150 Years After (chapters TBA)

Marcello Musto, “Revisiting Marx’s Concept of Alienation”, Socialism and Democracy, vol. 24, n. 3 (November 2010): 79-101

Additional Readings:

Eric Hobsbawm, 'Marx, Engels and Pre-Marxian socialism', in idem, ed., The History of Marxism, Volume 1: Marxism in Marx's day

Karl Marx, Grundrisse ('The Fragments on Machines', pp. 690-712)

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1857/grundrisse/index.htm

Also available here:

thenewobjectivity.com/pdf/marx.pdf

Karl Marx, Critique of the Gotha Programme

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1875/gotha/index.htm

Ernest Mandel, 'Marx, Karl Heinrich', in John Eatwell - Murray Milgate - Peter Newman (eds), The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, Volume 3, pp. 367-383

http://www.marxists.org/archive/mandel/19xx/marx/

Clara Zetkin, 'What the Women Owe to Karl Marx', in Frank Mecklenburg - Manfred Stassen, German Essays on Socialism in the Nineteenth Century, pp. 237-241.

Marcello Musto, 'The Rediscovery of Karl Marx', International Review of Social History, Vol. 52, part 3 (2007): 477-498

Week 5 - Oct 9 The International Working Men’s Association

Required Readings:

Marcello Musto, “Introduction” to Id. (ed.), Workers Unite! The International 150 Years After, pp. 1-68.

Additional Readings:

Excerpts from Marcello Musto (ed.), Workers Unite! The International 150 Years After (chapters TBA)

Week 6 - Oct 16 Anarchism

Required Readings:

Peter Kropotkin, 'Anarchism' (from The Encyclopaedia Britannica)

http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/kropotkin-peter/1910/britannica.htm

Excerpts from Marcello Musto (ed.), Workers Unite! The International 150 Years After (chapters TBA)

Peter Kropotkin, The Conquest of the bread (chapter to be announced)

Additional Readings:

George D.H. Cole, Socialist Thought, Volume II: Marxism and Anarchism 1850-1890, pp. 213-236 (Chap. IX: 'Bakunin')

Maximilien Rubel, Theoretician of Anarchism

http://www.marxists.org/archive/rubel/1973/marx-anarchism.htm

George D.H. Cole, Socialist Thought, Volume II: Marxism and Anarchism 1850-1890, pp. 315-360 (Chap. XII: 'Anarchists and Anarchist-Communists - Kropotkin')

Week 7 - Oct 23 Midterm Exam

Week 8 - Nov 6 The Soviets

Required Readings:

Vladimir Lenin, State and Revolution (Chapters I, II, III, V)

http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1917/staterev/

Additional Readings:

Paresh Chattopadhyay, The Marxian Concept of Capital and the Soviet Experience, Westport, CT: Praeger 1994

Paresh Chattopadhyay, 'The Economic Content of Socialism: Marx vs. Lenin', Review of Radical Political Economics, Vol. 24, n. 3-4 (1992): 90-110

Paresh Chattopadhyay, 'The Failure of Twentieth-Century Socialism and Marx’s Continuing Relevance', Socialism and Democracy, vol. 24, n. 3 (2010): 23-45

Vladimir Lenin, 'Last Testament: Letter to the Congress'

http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1922/dec/testamnt/congress.htm

Week 9 - Nov 13 Council Communism

Required Readings:

Anton Pannekoek, Workers’ Councils (chapters TBA)

http://www.marxists.org/archive/pannekoe/1947/workers-councils.htm

Additional Readings:

Marcel van der Linden, “On Council Communism”

http://libcom.org/files/Council%20communism.pdf

Week 10 - Nov 20 Socialist Planned Economy

Required Readings:

Charles Bettelheim , Theoretical and Practical Problems with Planning (chapters TBA)

Additional Readings:

Carl Landauer (1947): Theory of National Economic Planning. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles, Second edition.

Alec Nove (1987): "Planned economy," The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, v. 3, pp. 879–85.

Week 11 - Nov 27 Cuba and Socialist Experiences in Africa

Required Readings:

Ernesto Che Guevara, “ Complete Text of his Message to the Tricontinental" (and other writings TBA)

Thomas Sankara, We Are the Heirs of the World's Revolutions: Speeches from the Burkina Faso Revolution 1983-87 , by Pathfinder Press, 2007 (excerpts TBA)

Additional Readings:

Guevara, Ernesto "Che" (editors Bonachea, Rolando E. and Nelson P. Valdés; 1969). Che: Selected Works of Ernesto Guevara, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Guevara, Ernesto "Che" (translated from the Spanish by Patrick Camiller; 2000). The African Dream. New York: Grove Publishers.

Thomas Sankara, Thomas Sankara Speaks: The Burkina Faso Revolution, 1983-87, Pathfinder Press, 1988

Thomas Sankara, Women's Liberation and the African Freedom Struggle, Pathfinder Press, 1990

Alfred Cudjoe, Who killed Sankara? University of California, 1988

Week 12 - Dec 4 Socialism in Latin America (1973-2014)

A list of texts (and audio materials) for the last class will be distributed during the course.