Journal articles

Journal: Left Avvenimenti

Year & pages: Vol. 2022, n. 15, 21-25

Nei dibattiti della Prima Internazionale, César de Paepe formulò quella che sarebbe divenuta la posizione classica del movimento operaio su questo tema, ovvero l’inevitabilità delle guerre nel regime di produzione capitalistico. Nella società contemporanea, esse non sono provocate dalle ambizioni dei monarchi o di singoli individui, bensì sono determinate dal modello economico-sociale dominante. Il movimento socialista mostrò anche quale era la parte di popolazione sulla quale si abbattevano, ineluttabilmente, le conseguenze più nefaste delle guerre. Nel congresso del 1868, i delegati della Prima Internazionale votarono una mozione che impegnava i lavoratori a perseguire “l’abolizione definitiva di ogni guerra”, dal momento che sarebbero stati soprattutto loro a pagare economicamente, quando non con il loro sangue – e senza alcuna distinzione tra vincitori e sconfitti –, le decisioni delle classi dominanti e dei governi che li rappresentavano.

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Journal: Germinal: marxismo e educação em debate

Year & pages: Vol. 14 (2022), n. 1, 505-516

Na primeira parte da década de 1860, o interesse jornalístico e escolar de Marx na diplomacia e na política internacional o levaram a voltar sua atenção para dois importantes eventos históricos. O primeiro foi o estouro da guerra civil americana, quando sete estados escravocratas declararam sua secessão dos EUA. O segundo foi o levante do povo polonês contra a ocupação pela Rússia. A análise de Marx desses eventos históricos também influenciou seu compromisso político através da Associação Internacional dos Trabalhadores. Este artigo examina como os estudos de Marx sobre a guerra civil nos EUA e a luta por independência da Polônia foram relevantes tanto para seu desenvolvimento teórico quanto para seu engajamento político. Através dessas investigações Marx compreendeu dinâmicas matizadas em funcionamento, permitindo a ele sugerir intervenções internacionalistas funcionais para as organizações da classe trabalhadora.

Journal: إدراك

Year & pages: 2022, online

لأكثر من عقد من الزمان وحتى الآن ، تصف الصحف والمجلات المنتشرة و المرموقة كارل ماركس بالمنظّر الثاقب ممن تلاقي أفكاره التأييد المستمر. ويؤكد العديد من الكتّاب ذوي الآراء التقدمية أن أفكاره لا غنى عنها لأي شخص يؤمن بضرورة بناء بديل آخر للرأسمالية .و في كل مكان تقريبا، أصبح هو موضوع المقررات الجامعية والمؤتمرات العالمية. و عادت كتاباته ، سواء ما تم إعادة نشره أو ما صدر في طبعاتٍ جديدة, بالظهور على رفوف المكتبات . و اكتسبت دراسة أعماله ، بعد تجاهل دام لعشرين عاما، الكثير من الزخم المتزايد. غير أنّ العامين 2017 و 2018 جلبا المزيد من الاهتمام لـ ” احياء ماركس” وذلك بفضل المبادرات العديدة حول العالم والمتعلقة بالذكرى السنوية لمرور150 عاما على نشر كتاب رأس المال والذكرى المئوية الثانية لميلاد ماركس. أفكار ماركس غيرت العالم . على الرغم من تحقق نظريات ماركس التي تحولت إلى أيديولوجيات مهيمنة ومذاهب دولة لجزء كبير من البشرية في القرن العشرين، إلا أنه لا يوجد إصدار لكامل أعماله ومخطوطاته. يكمن السبب الرئيسي لهذا في الطابع غير المكتمل لأعمال ماركس: كتاباته غير المكتملة أكثر بكثير من أعماله المنشورة ، ناهيك عن مجموعة المذكرات الضخمة المتعلقة . طريقته الصارمة و نقده القاسي لنفسه زاد من صعوبة

Journal: Labor History

Year & pages: Vol. 62 (2021), n. 6, 801-813

On September 28, 1864, St. Martin’s Hall, in the heart of London, was packed to overflowing with some two thousand workers. They had come to attend a meeting called by English trade union leaders and a small group of companions from the Continent. This meeting gave birth to the prototype of all the main organisations of the workers’ movement: the International Working Men’s Association. Quickly, the International aroused passions all over Europe. It made class solidarity a shared ideal and inspired large numbers of women and men to struggle for the most radical of goals: changing the world. Thanks to its activity, workers were able to gain a clearer under-standing of the mechanisms of the capitalist mode of production, to become more aware of their own strength, and to develop new, more advanced forms of struggle for their rights.

Journal: International Critical Thought

Year & pages: Vol. 11 (2021), n. 3, 1-19

This article analyses Marx’s conviction that the expansion of the capitalist mode of production was a basic prerequisite for the birth of communist society. It overviews this idea through the whole of Marx’s oeuvre, from his early political writings to the studies of the last decade. Particular relevance is given to the analysis of Capital and its preparatory manuscripts, where Marx highlighted in depth the fundamental relationship between the productive growth generated by the capitalist mode of production and the preconditions for the communist society for which the workers’ movement must struggle. Finally, the article shows that in the end of his life—for example when he studied the possible developments of the rural commune (obshchina) in Russia—Marx did not change his basic ideas about the profile of future communist society, as he sketched it from the Grundrisse on. Guided by hostility to schematism he thought it might be possible that the revolution would break out in forms and conditions that had never been considered before.

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Journal: ΘΕΣΕΙΣ

Year & pages: Vol. 2021, n. 155

Tον Αύγουστο του 1893, όταν το Προεδρείο προσκάλεσε τη Ρόζα Λούξεμπουργκ να μιλήσει σε μια σύνοδο του Συνεδρίου της Ζυρίχης της Δεύτερης Διεθνούς, η Ρόζα βάδισε με θάρρος ανάμεσα στο πλήθος των εκλεγμένων αντιπροσώπων και των ακτιβιστών που συνωθούνταν στην κεντρική αίθουσα. Ήταν μια από τις λίγες παρούσες γυναίκες, στο άνθος της νεότητάς της, λεπτοκαμωμένη, και με μια παραμόρφωση του ισχίου που την υποχρέωνε να κουτσαίνει ήδη από την ηλικία των πέντε ετών. H πρώτη εντύπωση που έδωσε σε όσους την έβλεπαν για πρώτη φορά ήταν αυτή ενός πραγματικά αδύναμου πλάσματος. Όμως, στη συνέχεια, καθώς μιλούσε όρθια σε μια καρέκλα ώστε να ακούγεται καλύτερα, γοήτευσε πολύ γρήγορα όλο το ακροατήριο με τη δεξιότητα της σκέψης και την πρωτοτυπία των θέσεών της.

Journal: Su la testa

Year & pages: Vol. 2021, n. 4, 92-99

Nel Libro primo del Capitale, Marx argomentò che il capitalismo è un modo di produzione sociale «storicamente determinato», nel quale il prodotto del lavoro è trasformato in merce. In conseguenza di questa peculiarità, gli individui hanno valore solo in quanto produttori e «l’esistenza dell’essere umano» è asservita all’atto della «produ[zione] di merci». Pertanto, è «il processo di produzione [a] padroneggi[are] gli esseri umani», non viceversa. Il capitale «non si preoccupa della durata della vita della forza-lavoro» e non ritiene rilevante il miglioramento delle condizioni del proletariato. Quello che gli «interessa è unicamente […] il massimo [sfruttamento] di forza lavoro […], così come un agricoltore avido ottiene aumentati proventi dal suolo rapinandone la fertilità». Nei Grundrisse, Marx ricordò che, poiché nel capitalismo, «lo scopo del lavoro non è un prodotto particolare che sta in […] rapporto con i bisogni […] dell’individuo, ma [è, invece,] il denaro […], la laboriosità dell’individuo non ha alcun limite». In siffatta società «tutto il tempo di un individuo è posto come tempo di lavoro e [l’uomo] viene degradato a mero operaio, sussunto sotto il lavoro».

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Journal: Contemporary Sociology

Year & pages: Vol. 49 (2020), n. 5, 407-419

For more than a decade now, prestigious newspapers and journals with a wide readership have been describing Karl Marx as a far-seeing theorist whose topicality receives constant confirmation. Many authors with progressive views maintain that his ideas continue to be indispensable for anyone who believes it is necessary to build an alternative to capitalism. Almost everywhere, he is now the theme of university courses and international conferences. His writings, reprinted or brought out in new editions, have reappeared on bookshop shelves, and the study of his work, after twenty years or more of neglect, has gathered increasing momentum. The years 2017 and 2018 have brought further intensity to this “Marx revival”, thanks to many initiatives around the world linked to the 150th anniversary of the publication of Capital and the bicentenary of Marx’s birth. Marx’s ideas have changed the world. Yet despite the affirmation of Marx’s theories, turned into dominant ideologies and state doctrines for a considerable part of humankind in the twentieth century, there is still no full edition of all his works and manuscripts.

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Journal: Eszmélet

Year & pages: Vol. 2020, n. 127-128, 59-80

Az 1870-es évek végén Marx a Nyugat-Európán kívüli régiók gazdasági-politikai viszonyainak mélyebb vizsgálatába fogott. Kutatásai során egyre markánsabban hangsúlyozta a gyarmatosítás destruktív hatásait, a „civilizáló” hatásra való hivat­kozások képmutató voltát. Hangsúlyosan felvetette a nyugati kapitalista fejlődéstől eltérő fejlődési utak lehetőségének problémáját. Mindez megkérdőjelezi Marx eurocentrikus, gazdasági determinista gondolkodóként való beállítását.

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Journal: Antagónica

Year & pages: Vol. 2020, n. 1, 66-76

En las últimas décadas, se ha difundido una versión de Marx como culpable de eurocentrismo, orientalismo, economicismo y no capaz de analizar las contradicciones sociales, sino por medio de los conflictos entre el capital y el trabajo. En este artículo, tratamos de revisar esta tesis y queremos presentar a Marx como un pensador completamente diferente de las visiones anteriores. Volvemos a los debates sobre el orientalismo y revisamos la discusión sobre las formas rusas de desarrollo en el último Marx.

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