Marcello Musto

Marcello Musto

Born April 14, 1976, MA in Political Science, University of Napoli - L'Orientale, PhD in Philosophy and Politics, University of Napoli - L'Orientale, and PhD in Philosophy, University of Nice - Sophia Antipolis, teaches Political Theory at the Department of Political Science of York University (Toronto).

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Cover IWMA Routledge Book

The International after 150 Years: Labour vs Capital, Then and Now, New York-London: Routledge, 2015 (232 pages).


The International Workingmen’s Association was the prototype of all organizations of the Labor movement and the 150th anniversary of its birth (1864-2014) offers an important opportunity to rediscover its history and learn from its legacy.

The International helped workers to grasp that the emancipation of labour could not be won in a single country but was a global objective. It also spread an awareness in their ranks that they had to achieve the goal themselves, through their own capacity for organization, rather than by delegating it to some other force; and that it was essential to overcome the capitalist system itself, since improvements within it, though necessary to pursue, would not eliminate exploitation and social injustice.

This book reconsider the main issues broached or advanced by the International – such as labor rights, critiques of capitalism and the search for international solidarity – in light of present-day concerns. With the recent crisis of capitalism, that has sharpened more than before the division between capital and labor, the political legacy of the organization founded in London in 1864 has regained profound relevance, and its lessons are today more timely than ever.



"The International After 150 Years, edited by Comninel, Musto, and Wallis, although marking an important anniversary, could not have come at a better time. A century and a half after its birth, the lessons of the International Working Men’s Association are now once again directly relevant to the world in which we live. The global assault of capitalism on workers and popular movements everywhere demands the creation in response of a New International - one which, as Marcello Musto eloquently says in his chapter, "cannot evade that twin requirement" of the old International: 'it must be plural and it must be anti-capitalist'."

John Bellamy Foster, editor of Monthly Review


"This fine volume brings together leading scholars and movement activists in commemorating a turning point in the history of workers’ struggles. It strikes a fruitful balance between reflections on the labour movement’s past, and critical analysis of the present global situation." 

Ellen Meiksins Wood, author of Democracy Against Capitalism


"As capital became more mobile and global in the late 20th century, labor was slow to catch up. Now, workers under siege throughout the world better understand the need for cross-border solidarity and coordinated action against common corporate adversaries. This timely collection examines the origins of socialist-inspired labor internationalism and some of the challenges facing union campaigners today in the global north and south. The First International after 150 Years provides insights and inspiration for activists and academics alike."

Steve Early, author of Save Our Unions: Dispatches from a Movement in Distress


"This book is an especially timely and crucial reference now. Another global capitalist crisis, deepening inequalities of wealth and income, provokes again basic questions and challenges to capitalism. People need and increasingly want to learn (and build on) the critical lessons from the theories and practices of previous generations that sought to do better than capitalism. This book directly serves such needs and wants."

Richard D. Wolff, Professor of Economics Emeritus, University of Massachusetts



Aktief, 01/09/2019.

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마르크스와 마르크스주의들을 다시 생각한다, Seoul: Hanul, 2013 (360 pages).

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이 책은 무스토가 2005년부터 2010년 사이에 여러 경로를 통해 출판한 논문들을 모은 것으로서, 마르크스의 미발행 수고들과 출판 원고들에 대한 문헌학적 연구를 비롯해 마르크스의 지적 생애에 대한 연구 및 이 같은 마르크스 이론과 사상에 대한 마르크스 이후 마르크스주의들의 발전 과정에 대한 비판적 연구가 주된 내용을 이룬다. 책은 크게 2부로 나눠진다. 제1부는 1818년 마르크스의 탄생부터 1860년대 [1861~1863년 경제학 초고]를 작성하는 시기까지 마르크스가 걸은 지적 생애를 대상으로 한다. 제2부는 마르크스의 저작들의 유포와 수용의 역사를 다룬다. 여기서 마르크스의 주요한 개념적 쟁점들(특히 소외 개념)에 대한 여러 가지 마르크스주의 조류들의 견해들이 비판적으로 검토된다.



Korea Times, 09/04/2013.

Marxism 21, by Choeng-Lip Chu, 2014.

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சர்வதேசத் தொழிலாளர் சங்கத்தின் வரலாறும் மரபும், Chennai: New Century Book House, 2015 (167 + xx pages).

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உலகின் பல பகுதிகளில் இன்று நடைபெறும் மக்கள் போராட்டங்களில் காரல் மார்க்ஸின் கருத்துக்களும் பேசப்படுகின்றன. ஆனால், அவற்றுக்கு ‘அதிகார பூர்வமான’ கம்யூனிஸ்ட் கட்சிகள் தலைமை தாங்குவதில்லை. மக்களின் உணர்வுகளுக்கும் கம்யூனிஸ்ட் கட்சிகளுக்கும் ஏற்பட்டுள்ள இந்த இடைவெளி, உலகெங்கும் பல அறிவாளிகளின் ஆய்வுப் பொருளாகி உள்ளது. கனடாவின் யோர்க் பல்கலைக்கழகத்தின் பேராசிரியர் மார்ஸெல்லோ முஸ்ட்டோ அவர்களில் ஒருவர். ஆரம்ப கால கம்யூனிச இயக்க ஆவணங்களை ஆராய்ந்து அவர் எழுதிய பல நூல்களில், ‘முதலாம் அகிலம்’ பற்றியது இது. ‘முதலாவது அகிலம்’ என்று அழைக்கப்பட்ட, சர்வதேசத் தொழிலாளர் சங்கம்தான் கம்யூனிச இயக்கத்தின் விதை.

மனித இனத்தின் உயிரியல் வளர்ச்சிப் போக்கைத் தெளிவுபடுத்தியவர் டார்வின். மனித இனத்தின் பொருளியல் வளர்ச்சிப் போக்கைத் தெளிவுபடுத்தி, அதன் எதிர்காலத்தைக் கணித்தவர் காரல் மார்க்ஸ். மனித சமூகத்தின் வளர்ச்சிப் போக்கை அதன் பொருளாதார உற்பத்தி முறையை வைத்து மதிப்பிடும் புதிய சிந்தனை முறையை உருவாக்குவதற்கான உலைக்களமாக ‘அகிலம்’ காரல் மார்க்ஸுக்கு இருந்தது. உணவு, உடை, உறைவிடம் எனும் அடிப்படைத் தேவைகளில் தன்னிறைவு பெற்றதாக மனித இனத்தை மாற்றுவது என்ற லட்சியக் கனவோடு அவர் இந்தப் புதிய சிந்தனையை உருவாக்கினார்.

மூன்று அகிலங்கள்!

முதலாம் அகிலத்துக்கு (1864-76) பிறகு, இரண்டாம் அகிலம் (1889-1916) செயல்பட்டது. மூன்றாவது அகிலத்தை (1919- 43) லெனின் உருவாக்கினார். உலக அரசியலில் தாக்கத்தை ஏற்படுத்திய பல்வேறு கருத்துக்களுக்கு ஊற்றாக இவை இருந்துள்ளன.

150 வருடங்களுக்கு முன்பே, முதலாவது அகிலத்தில் குழந்தைத் தொழிலாளர் முறை ஒழிப்பு, சுற்றுச்சூழல் பாதுகாப்புபற்றிய விவாதங்கள் நடந்திருக்கின்றன. பெரும்பான்மை, சிறுபான்மை என்றுகூடப் பார்க்காமல் பல்வேறு கருத்துக்களைக் கொண்டவர்களை ஒருங்கிணைத்துச் செயல்பட வைத்தது, விவாதத்தின் மூலமாகவே அகிலத்தின்பால் பலரையும் கவர்ந்திழுத்தது உள்ளிட்ட பல நல்ல விஷயங்களைச் சுட்டிக்காட்டும் ஆசிரியர், அகிலத்தின் உறுப்பினர் எண்ணிக்கை, வர்க்க சேர்மானம் ஆகியவற்றையும் ஆய்வுக்கு உட்படுத்துகிறார். மார்க்ஸை எதிர்த்துச் செயல்பட்ட மிகையில் பக்கூனின் உள்ளிட்டோரின் விவாதக் கருத்துக்களையும் இதில் தொகுத்துள்ளார்.

பன்முகத்தன்மை கொண்ட கட்டமைப்பும் புரட்சிகரக் குறிக்கோள்களும் அகிலத்தின் சிறப்பியல்புகள். இன்றைய உலகச் சூழலில் அவற்றைக் கொண்ட ஒரு புதிய அகிலம் மக்களுக்குத் தேவை என்ற ஆசிரியரின் குரல் நூலில் ஒலிக்கிறது.

ஒன்றுசேர்ந்த அமைப்பு

மார்க்ஸிய-பெரியாரிய அறிஞர் எஸ்.வி. ராஜதுரை இந்த நூலைத் தமிழாக்கம் செய்துள்ளார். அவரும் தனது முன்னுரையில் மார்க்ஸை எதிர்த்துச் செயல்பட்ட கம்யூனிச முன்னோடிகளான மிகையில் பக்கூனின் உள்ளிட்டவர்களுக்கும் சோவியத் யூனியனில் லெனின் நினைவுச் சின்னங்களை எழுப்பிய பரந்த மனப்பான்மையை நினைவுகூர்கிறார். குறுகிய மனப்பான்மைகளைக் கைவிட்டு தலித் மக்கள், பெண்கள், சுற்றுச்சூழலியலாளர்கள், மனித உரிமைச் செயல்பாட்டாளர்கள், சிறுபான்மையோரின் அமைப்புகள் ஒன்றுசேர்ந்து ஒரு பரந்த ஜனநாயக மேடையை உருவாக்க வேண்டும். அதுவே, சமூக முன்னேற்றத்தை வேகப்படுத்தும் என்கிறார் எஸ்.வி. ராஜதுரை.

உலகளாவிய கண்ணோட்டமும் மனிதரின் அடிப்படைத் தேவைகள்பற்றிய விவாதமும் பெரும் பணக்கார நாடுகளின் கைத்தடியாக இருக்கிற ஐ.நா. சபையின் பிடிக்குள் இன்று இருக்கின்றன. உலகின் மிகப் பெரிய தொண்டு நிறுவனமாக (என்.ஜி.ஓ) உள்ள ஐ.நா. சபை முதலாளித்துவப் பாதுகாப்புக்கான, மக்களுக்கு எதிரான ஒரு அகிலமே. அதற்கு எதிராக மக்களை ஒன்றுதிரட்டக்கூடிய ஆற்றல் உள்ள ஒரு உலகளாவிய அமைப்புதான் மனிதரின் அடிப்படைத் தேவைகளையும் ஆன்மிகத் தேவைகளையும் நிறைவு செய்யும். அதற்கான முன்முயற்சிகளைச் செய்யக்கூடிய இடதுசாரிச் சக்திகளோ சுயதிருப்தியாலும் குறுகிய மனப்போக்காலும் செயலற்றுக்கிடக்கின்றன. இந்த நிலையை மாற்ற வேண்டும் என்று நினைக்கிற சமூக உணர்வாளர்களுக்கு இந்த நூல் பயனுள்ளதாக இருக்கும் என்பதில் சந்தேகமே இல்லை!



The Hindu (Tamil), 27/2/2016.

 trabalhadores uni vos capa final dois Cover

Trabalhadores, uni-vos! Antologia política da I Internacional, São Paulo: Boitempo, 2014 (450 pages).

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A Associação Internacional dos Trabalhadores (AIT) se tornou símbolo da luta de classes e influenciou as ideias de milhões de trabalhadores ao redor do planeta. O aniversário de 150 de sua fundação, em 1864, oferece uma importante oportunidade de reler suas resoluções e aprender com as experiências de seus protagonistas, para repensar os problemas do presente. Com textos inéditos, cuidadosamente selecionados e traduzidos, este volume configura um arquivo de valor inestimável para a história e a teoria do movimento dos trabalhadores, bem como para a crítica do capitalismo. O livro conta ainda com uma extensa introdução crítica de Marcello Musto, apresentando e contextualizando as diverentes vertentes e resoluções em jogo.



"Trabalhadores, uni-vos! talvez contenha a lição mais importante para nossa época. Neste livro, a fundação da Associação Internacional dos Trabalhadores recebe, por ocasião de seu 150º aniversário, uma saudação à altura de um dos maiores, ainda que nem tão conhecido, feitos da humanidade. Uma coletânea extraordinária, muitas vezes surpreendente, jamais tediosa, e repleta de insights e discussões, em grande parte – infelizmente – ainda relevantes. ALTAMENTE RECOMENDÁVEL para todos aqueles que mantêm a mente jovem o suficiente para aprender algo verdadeiramente novo com o que parece velho e ultrapassado."

Bertell Ollman, New York University


"O conhecimento da história e da experiência da Internacional, tão bem apropriado por Marcello Musto nesta obra, é absolutamente indispensável para todos os que, diante da barbárie capitalista contemporânea, querem travar a luta – democrática, unitária e sem fronteiras – por um mundo livre da exploração, da opressão e da alienação."

José Paulo Netto


"Trabalhadores, uni-vos! ajuda-nos na assimilação crítica da luta e dos saberes plurais que expressaram o amadurecimento da classe operária desde a época da Primeira Internacional. Eis aqui um livro que deve ser lido por todos os socialistas."

Leandro Konder


"Esta formidável coleção de documentos, publicada por ocasião do 150º aniversário de fundação da Primeira Internacional, é importantíssima para nós não só pela riqueza do material reunido, mas pela lição que ela nos dá: uma Associação Internacional de Trabalhadores unitária, plural, combativa, aglutinando partidários de Marx, Proudhon, Blanqui, Bakunin, comunistas, socialistas e anarquistas, que, apesar de suas divergências, souberam se unir em torno da primeira grande revolução proletária, a Comuna de Paris de 1871. A história não se repete, mas a AIT é um belo exemplo para os internacionalistas do século XXI!"

Michael Löwy, French National Center of Scientific Research


"O que significa construir uma revolução? Naqueles dez anos em torno da Comuna de Paris, os comunistas responderam a essa pergunta propondo uma disutopia: não tentaram o impossível, mas mostraram ser possível realizá-lo. Com a fundação da Internacional, a classe operária reivindicou seu realismo político."

Toni Negri, University of Padua


Boitempo, by Paulo Barsotti, 27/10/2014.

O Globo, by Leonardo Cazes, 01/11/2014.

GGN, by Gilberto Cruvinel, 02/11/2014.

Boitempo, by Morgana Gomes, 16/12/2014.

Revista Digital Em Debate, by Crystiane Peres, 1/10/2018.

workers unite

Workers Unite! The International 150 Years Later, New York: Bloomsbury, 2014 (336 pages).

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Major political and economic shifts have succeeded one another over the past twenty-five years. The rise to prominence of ecological issues, social changes generated by neoliberal globalization, and - most recently - one of the worst world economic crises ever, compels us to reflect urgently on the need for alternatives to the capitalist system.

In its brief life, the International Working Men's Association (IWMA) became the symbol of class struggle and influenced the ideas of millions of workers all over the planet. The 150th anniversary of its birth (1864-2014) offers an important opportunity to reread their resolutions, to learn from the experiences of its protagonists, and to better theorize solutions to our contemporary issues.

This sourcebook includes the most valuable documents (30 appearing for the first time in English) of all the currents of the IWMA, and, in his introduction, acclaimed scholar Marcello Musto provides critical evaluations to the texts and to their historical context.

Carefully selected and translated, this volume is an invaluable resource for all those interested in the foundations of labor movement history's as well as in the critique of capitalism. 



"An incredible collection."

Noam Chomsky, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


"Workers Unite! may be the most important piece of wisdom we will ever hear. In this book, the founding of the International Working Men's Association, receives a 150 birthday salute worthy of one of humanity's greatest, albeit least known, accomplishments. An extraordinary collection, often surprising, never dull, and full of insights and arguments, most of which-sadly enough-are still relevant. HIGHLY RECOMMENDED to everyone young enough in mind to learn something truly new from what appears to be old and over."

Bertell Ollman, New York University 


"This wonderful book by Musto responds to the question: What does it mean to construct a revolution? In the decade before and after the Paris Commune communists discovered what that meant, and they proposed a non-utopian project: they didn't just imagine the impossible but demonstrated how to realize it. With the foundation of the International, the working class asserted its political realism." 

Antonio Negri, University of Padua



Tribune, by Denis MacShane, 17.

Morning Star, by Andrew Murray, 23/11/2014.

Socialism and Democracy, by George Comninel, 2014.

Anarchist Writers, by Iain McKay, 21.

Labor Studies Journal, by William A. Pelz, 17/09/2016.

Rethinking Marxism, by Babak Amini, .

Political Studies Review, by Terrell Carver, 2016.

Actuel Marx, by Antony Burlaud, 2016.

Marx and Philosophy Review of Books, by Christopher Araujo, 21/02/2017.

Science & Society, by August H. Nimtz, 2017.

Wednesday, 06 April 2016 05:29

Lavoratori di tutto il mondo, unitevi!

Lavoraor Di Tutto
Lavoratori di tutto il mondo, unitevi!, Roma: Donzelli, 2014 (256 + XVI pages).
united states flagbrazil flagTamil Nadu flagAndhra Pradesh picture flag of Uttar Pradesh


Centocinquant’anni fa, il 28 settembre 1864, alla St. Martin’s Hall di Londra, si teneva la sessione inaugurale dell’Associazione internazionale dei lavoratori: l’atto fondativo della prima organizzazione internazionale del movimento operaio. Ciò che oggi colpisce è il carattere profondamente radicale e libertario di quella esperienza. Le discussioni, anche accese, che la animarono spaziavano dal diritto al lavoro alla critica delle ingiustizie sociali, dalla contestazione del modo di produzione capitalistico alla denuncia delle sue contraddizioni, dalla difesa della salute, dell’istruzione, del welfare all’aspra contestazione delle diseguaglianze di genere, dalla polemica contro i nazionalismi e le discriminazioni razziali al progetto di una nuova dimensione internazionale per le classi lavoratrici, in vista della loro emancipazione. Durante la sua breve vita, l’Internazionale divenne il simbolo della lotta di classe e influenzò le idee di milioni di lavoratori in varie parti del mondo. Visti a distanza di 150 anni, questi documenti – 80 testi (26 dei quali tradotti per la prima volta in italiano), curati con estremo rigore scientifico e intellettuale da Marcello Musto, in un’edizione che vede contemporaneamente la luce in inglese presso l’editore Bloomsbury, colpiscono per la loro insospettabile attualità: in un’epoca in cui il mondo del lavoro è costretto ancora a subire condizioni di sfruttamento, il progetto dell’associazione riacquista tutta la sua forza.



Carmilla, by Alfio Neri, 26/01/2013.

Corriere della Sera, by Luciano Canfora, 11/03/2014.

La Stampa, by Angelo D'Orsi, 01/09/2014.

Le Repubblica, by Massimiliano Panarari, 26/09/2014.

Positano News, by Rita Felerico, 27/09/2014.

Ansa, by Paolo Petroni, 28/09/2014.

La Regione Ticino, 29/09/2014.

Il Salvagente, 09/10/2014.

Lombardia Oggi, 15/10/2014.

Rassegna Sindacale, by Stefania Miccolis, 15/10/2014.

Il Sole 24 Ore, by Giuseppe Bedeschi, 26/10/2014.

Il Tirreno, by Alfonso M. Iacono, 15/12/2014.

Italia Oggi, by Diego Gabutti, 12/02/2015.

Il Manifesto, 19/03/2015.

Succedeoggi, by Roberto Carocci, 04/2015.

Critica Marxista, by Roberto Carocci, 2015.