Book Chapters

Book: Marcello Musto (Ed.), Rethinking Alternatives with Marx: Economy, Ecology and Migration

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

Pub. Info: 2021, pp. xiii-xix
The return to Marx following the economic crisis of 2008 has been distinct from the renewed interest in his critique of economics. Many authors, in a whole series of newspapers, journals, books and academic volumes, have observed how indispensable Marx’s analysis has proved to be for an understanding of the contradictions and destructive mechanisms of capitalism. In the last few years, however, there has also been a reconsideration of Marx as a political figure and theorist. The publication of previously unknown manuscripts in the German MEGA2 edition, along with innovative interpretations of his work, have opened up new research horizons and demonstrated more clearly than in the past his capacity to examine the contradictions of capitalist society on a global scale and in spheres beyond the conflict between capital and labour. It is no exaggeration to say that, of the great classics of political, economic and philosophical thought, Marx is the one whose profile has changed the most in the opening decades of the twenty-first century.

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Book: Marcello Musto (Ed.), Rethinking Alternatives with Marx: Economy, Ecology and Migration

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

Pub. Info: 2021, pp. xiii-xix
The Paris Commune had shown that the aim of the working class had to be one of building a society radically different from capitalism and embodied the idea of social-political change and its practical application. It became synonymous with the very concept of revolution and inspired Karl Marx to develop his reflections on communism. The alternative to capitalist alienation was achievable only if the subaltern classes became aware of their condition as new slaves and embarked on a struggle to radically transform the world in which they were exploited. Their mobilization and active participation in this process could not stop on the day after the conquest of power. Social mobilization would have to continue after the revolution, in order to avert any drift toward the kind of state socialism that Marx always opposed with the utmost tenacity and conviction.
Book: Marcello Musto (Ed.), Karl Marx’s Writings on Alienation

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

Pub. Info: 2021, pp. 1-45
Alienation was one of the most important and widely debated themes of the 20th century, and Marx’s theorization played a key role in the discussions. Yet, contrary to what one might imagine, the concept itself did not develop in a linear manner, and the publication of previously unknown texts containing Marx’s reflections on alienation defined significant moments in the transformation and dissemination of the theory. The meaning of the term changed several times over the centuries. In theological discourse it referred to the distance between man and God; in social contract theories, to loss of the individual’s original liberty; and in English political economy, to the transfer of property ownership. The first systematic philosophical account of alienation was in the work of G.W.F. Hegel (1770–1831), who in The Phenomenology of Spirit (1807) adopted the terms Entäusserung (literally self-externalization or renunciation) and Entfremdung (estrangement) to denote spirit’s becoming other than itself in the realm of objectivity.

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Book: Elvira Concheiro Bórquez et al. (Eds.) Marx, 200 años. Presente, pasado y futuro

Publisher: Clacso

Pub. Info: 2020, pp. 103-153
El examen de los estudios finales de Karl Marx, que prácticamente no han sido explorados, desmiente el mito de que Marx dejó de escribir en sus últimos años. El período final del trabajo de Marx sin duda fue difícil, pero también fue de gran importancia teórica. A finales de la década de 1870, Marx no solo continuó su trabajo de investigación, sino que lo amplió a nuevas disciplinas. Es más, Marx estudió nuevos conflictos políticos (como la lucha del movimiento populista ruso después de la abolición de la servidumbre de la gleba, o la oposición a la opresión colonialista en la India, Egipto y Argelia), nuevas cuestiones teóricas (tales como las formas de propiedad comunal en las sociedades precapitalistas o la posibilidad de revolución socialista en los países desarrollados de manera no capitalista) y nuevas zonas geográficas (como Rusia, la India o el norte de África).

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Book: Marcello Musto (Ed.), De Regreso a Marx. Claves para el pensamiento critico

Publisher: Bellaterra

Pub. Info: 2020, pp. 129-158
La alienación puede situarse entre las teorías más relevantes y discutidas del siglo XX, y la concepción de la misma elaborada por Marx asume un rol determinante en el ámbito de las discusiones desarrolladas sobre el tema. Sin embargo, a diferencia de lo que se podría imaginar, el curso de su afirmación no fue en absoluto lineal, y la publicación de algunos textos inéditos de Marx conteniendo reflexiones sobre la alienación, han representado hitos significativos en la transformación y propagación de esta teoría. A lo largo de los siglos, el término alienación fue utilizado muchas veces y con diferentes significados. En el discurso teológico, designaba la distancia entre el hombre y Dios; en las teorías del contrato social, servía para indicar la pérdida de la libertad originaria del individuo; mientras que en la economía política inglesa, fue utilizado para describir a la cesión de la propiedad privada de la tierra o de la mercancía. Sin embargo, la primera exposición filosófica sistemática de la alienación sólo apareció a comienzos del siglo XIX y fue obra de G. W. F. Hegel.
Book: Marcello Musto (Ed.), The Marx Revival: Key Concepts and New Interpretations

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Pub. Info: 2020, pp. 24-50
In the wake of the French Revolution, numerous theories began to circulate in Europe that sought both to respond to demands for social justice unanswered by the French Revolution and to correct the dramatic economic imbalances brought about by the spread of the industrial revolution. The democratic gains following the capture of the Bastille delivered a decisive blow to the aristocracy, but they left almost unchanged the inequality of wealth between the popular and the dominant classes. The decline of the monarchy and the establishment of the republic were not sufficient to reduce poverty in France. This was the context in which the ‘critical-utopian’ theories of socialism, as Marx and Engels defined them in the Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848), rose to prominence. They considered them ‘utopian’ for two reasons: first, their exponents, in different ways, opposed the existing social order and furnished theories containing what they believed to be ‘the most valuable elements for the enlightenment of the working class’.

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Book: Clemencia Tejeiros (Ed.), Marx y la sociología. De la confrontación al reconocimiento

Publisher: Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Pub. Info: 2020, pp. 449-484
La convicción de que la expansión del modo de producción capitalista era un prerrequisito básico para el advenimiento de la sociedad comunista está presente a lo largo de toda la obra de Marx. En una de sus primeras conferencias públicas, que dio en la Asociación de Trabajadores Alemanes de Bruselas y que incluyó en un manuscrito preparatorio titulado «Salario» (1847), Marx hablaba de «un aspecto positivo del capital, de la industria a gran escala, de la libre competencia, del mercado mundial». A los trabajadores que habían ido a escucharlo, les dijo: «No necesito explicarles en detalle cómo, sin estas relaciones de producción y sin que los medios de producción ⸻los medios materiales para la emancipación del proletariado y la cimentación de una nueva sociedad⸻ hubiesen sido creados, el proletariado tampoco hubiera logrado la unificación ni el desarrollo a través de los cuales es realmente capaz de revolucionar la vieja sociedad y de revolucionarse a sí mismo».

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Book: Clemencia Tejeiros (Ed.), Marx y la sociología. De la confrontación al reconocimiento

Publisher: Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Pub. Info: 2020, pp. 533-594
Pocos hombres sacudieron el mundo como Karl Marx. A su desaparición, que pasó casi inobservada, le siguió, con una rapidez que en la historia tiene raros ejemplos con los cuales pueda ser confrontada, el eco de la fama. Muy pronto el nombre de Marx estuvo en las bocas de los trabajadores de Chicago y Detroit, así como en las de los primeros socialistas indios en Calcuta. Su imagen sirvió de fondo al congreso de los bolcheviques en Moscú después de la revolución. Su pensamiento inspiró programas y estatutos de todas las organizaciones políticas y sindicales del movimiento obrero, desde Europa entera hasta Shangai. Sus ideas alteraron profundamente la filosofía, la historia, la economía. Sin embargo, no obstante la afirmación de sus teorías, que en el siglo XX se transformaron en la ideología dominante y la doctrina de Estado en una gran parte del género humano, y la enorme difusión de sus escritos, sigue sin tener, hasta hoy, una edición integral y científica de sus obras. Entre los más grandes autores de la humanidad, esta suerte le tocó exclusivamente a él.
Book: Marcello Musto (Ed.), Marx’s Capital after 150 Years: Critique and Alternative to Capitalism

Publisher: Routledge

Pub. Info: 2019, pp. 1-35
Marx started to write Capital only many years after he had begun his rigorous studies of political economy. From 1843 onwards, he had already been working, with great intensity, towards what he would later define as his own ‘Economics’. It was the eruption of the financial crisis of 1857 that forced Marx to start his work. Marx was convinced that the crisis developing at international level had created the conditions for a new revolutionary period throughout Europe. He had been waiting for this moment ever since the popular insurrections of 1848, and now that it finally seemed to have come, he did not want events to catch him unprepared. He therefore decided to resume his economic studies and to give them a finished form. This period was one of the most prolific in his life: he managed to write more in a few months than in the preceding years. In December 1857, he wrote to Engels: ‘I am working like mad all night and every night collating my economic studies, so that I might at least get the outlines Grundrisse clear before the deluge’.

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Book: Shaibal Gupta, Marcello Musto, and Babak Amini (Eds.), Karl Marx's Life, Ideas, Influence: A Critical Examination on the Bicentenary

Publisher: Palgrave–Macmillan

Pub. Info: 2019, pp. 21-40
The workers’ organizations that founded the International Working Men’s Association in 1864 were something of a motley. The central driving forces were British trade unionism and the mutualists, long dominant in France but strong also in Belgium and French-speaking Switzerland. Alongside these two components, there were the communists, grouped around the figure of Karl Marx, elements that had nothing to do with the socialist tradition, such as the followers of Giuseppe Mazzini, and some groups of French, Belgian and Swiss workers who joined the International with them a variety of confused theories, some of a utopian inspiration. The General Association of German Workers – the party led by followers of Ferdinand Lassalle – never affiliated to the International but orbited around it. This organization was hostile to trade unionism and conceived of political action in rigidly national terms.

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